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The debate between neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism has dominated IR debate for decades. The two schools of thought have jostled over views of the international system in an attempt to define the world of international politics. These two paradigms have been important to defining policymaking and the research within international relations (Lamy, 2005, p.207). The debate is characterized by their disagreement over specific issues such as: the nature and consequences of anarchy, international cooperation, relative versus absolute gains, intentions versus capabilities, institutions and regimes, and priority of state goals.


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Neoliberals and neorealists are two views of the same approach. Both assume similar positions regarding the international system: states are main actors, they act rationally, and international anarchy shapes their behaviour. Most notably, neorealism and neoliberal share similar methodology, epistemology and ontology. The methods by which neorealists and neoliberals study the world are analogous. Crucially, they agree that the acquisition of knowledge is based on the liberal notion of power and politics, which under-problematises the use of empirical material (Smith, 1997). Simon (1985) argues that rationalism is contextual, much depending of the presuppositions before the analysis. The principle of rationality is to formulate hypotheses about the real human behaviour, but must have combined additional assumptions about the structure of utility functions and the formation of expectations (Simon, 1985, cited in Keohane, 1988, p.381).

Now I saw his lifeless state. And that there was no longer any difference between what once had been my father and the table he was lying on, or the floor on which the table stood, or the wall socket beneath the window, or the cable running to the lamp beside him. For humans are merely one form among many, which the world produces over and over again, not only in everything that lives but also in everything that does not live, drawn in sand, stone, and water. And death, which I have always regarded as the greatest dimension of life, dark, compelling, was no more than a pipe that springs a leak, a branch that cracks in the wind, a jacket that slips off a clothes hanger and falls to the floor.

A Unique Carrara Attraction is the Character of Its PeopleExplore the Wonderful Historic Center of Carrara with Added InsightThe Tuscan city of Carrara, and in particular the old town, is one of our favorite places in Italy. Many tourists visit only the famous Carrara marble quarries, and they are indeed worth visiting, but the town itself is unique and worth your attention. There are numerous historic and artistic attractions - like the famous Duomo, but another good reason to visit is the sense of place that Carrara radiates. Undefinable, indescribable, yet unmistakable, there's a feeling that this place has identity and this place has character and that the inhabitants know it, love it, and are proud of it.Pop Art 1952 Cadillac Coupe de Ville by Silvio Santini, Paolo Grassi, and Mario Fruendi, 1986. Weighing 31,000 pounds, The marble car took an entire year to sculpt from a single block of Carrara arabescato marble that weighed 154,000 pounds! Outside the 1840 neoclassical Teatro degli Animosi, or simply Gli Animosi, June 2012.Here are three mini-articles describingaspects of Carrara, and some photos we like. Some pictures illustrate the words, most do not. Can you really not visit aplace with a specialty called calda-calda*?City of AnarchyCarrara is the international capital ofanarchy. We are not talking about masked, disaffected hotheadsbreaking windows, but rather anarchism as a political philosophywhich 'seeks stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntaryassociations'. The International of Anarchist Federations is basedhere, and you can visit the anarchist Circolo Gogliardo Fiaschibookstore on Via Giuseppe Ulivi. Nearby, there's the restaurant LaCapineria where they sometime offer local Carrara specialties'Sulle ali dell'anarchia' (On the wings of anarchy).The baroque Palazzo dei Conti del Medico. Piazza Alberico. 18th Century. Every May 1 here, there is a large andsometimes very large demonstration called the PrimoMaggio Anarchico attended byanarchists from all over Italy, and a number from other partsof Europe. The crowd is indistinguishable from any other politicalrally in Italy - all ages, all types, many signs. There are songs,including 'Sacco and Vanzetti' and 'Hymn of the International', thered and black anarchist flag, the anarchist symbol - an encircled A -and there's also a large contingent of idle carabinieri a few streetsaway, just in case. It is not a popular movement now, but it wasinfluential in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies, especially as part of the early labor movement. Importantparts of the movement's evolution began here in Carrara.Column capitol with pillow. Piazza delle Erbe, Carrara.Anarchism became part of thestoneworker culture in the latter half of the 19thcentury. It was a natural affinity for people whose existencedepended on the caprice of rocks and padroni, and whose ancestorsincluded quarrymen slaves of the Romans. Their politics and theirdesire for betterment often led to confrontation with the quarryowners and the government, sometimes violent confrontation. In 1894,the 'Lunigiana Revolt' occurred here as anarchistic quarry workerswent on strike and besieged police barracks in support of theSicilian Leagues - a peasant rights movement (Fasci Siciliani). Theuprising was violently surpressed by the state and 11 protesterskilled. Read a fascinating, less-than-objective NY Times dispatchabout the 1894 Lunigiana Revolt.Monument to Meschi, Labor leader and Anarchist.Anarchists were leaders in organizingthe stoneworkers into unions. This led to improved workingconditions such as the 6 1/2 hour day for quarrymen beginning in1911. The anarchist Ugo Del Papa founded a Camera del Lavoro tocoordinate and advance unions in 1904 and was influential in thesuccessful strike of 1913. Even more influencial was Alberto Meschi,one of the beloved figures in the history of Italian anarchy. Thereis an interesting large monument dedicated to him in the lovely parkof Piazza Gramsci (Piazza d'Armi) by the sculptore Ezio Nelli (1965).City of MichelangeloOld Carrara. Marble is used even in ordinary buildings.Every visitor to the Vatican knows that Michelangelo travelled to Carrara to personally select themarble block to create the Pieta. However, very few know that 'selecting' in 1498 meant dealing with a variety of tasks that were utterly remote from the graceful art that we see in a museum. Michelangelo visited Carrara about two dozen times in his life and the great artist stayed here for months at a time and lived in old Carrara. What trials and tribulations the great sculptor need to overcome in order to secure his marble! Selecting required attending to every aspect of procurement in an era where there was very little infrastructure. This meant prospecting the quarries, hiring the quarrymen, roughing out the blocks, arranging for transport to the docks, and contracting for ships to carry the marble to distant cities.After reading Eric Scigliano's book Michelangelo's Mountain (click for his website - there's also an Amazon ad below to purchase) we can not only appreciate the sculptures more, but marvel that they exist at all. Mr.Scigliano's book describes in detail not only Michelangelo's involvement with Carrara, but the artist's life and career - masterpiece by masterpiece, as well as the milieu in which he lived. He describes nearly every aspect of the marble industry, both ancient and modern, and gives the reader a real appreciation of Michelangelo's determination to realize his vision no matter the obstacle.Michelangelo lived and worked for months in this buildingat the corner of Via Santa Maria and Piazza del Duomo.The marble that Michelangelo used was, for the most part, quarried specially for him. In order to realize his work, the artist need to know which quarry owners were capable of supplying marble, as well as the qualities he desired in the marble - color, grain, veining. Quarrymen tend not speak of Carrara marble as a general term, but in terms of qualities - bianco ordinario, bianco venato, statuario, grey bardiglio or in terms of quarries - or parts of quarries - as a shorthand for a marble's particular characteristics. The Cadillac's arabescato is from the Cardellino quarry near Colonnata, Michelangelo's David is from Fantascritti in Misceglia, and the Pieta from Polvaccio. Carrara marbles all, but each with different qualities.Once the possibility of obtaining a block of a certain marble was settled, he had to babysit the quarrying of the marble. Since the work was carried out with hand tools, a good deal of waiting was involved. Once quarried, Michelangelo would rough out the sculpture, both to reduce the weight for transport and to ascertain that there were no hidden faults such discolored veins, mineral inclusions, or cracks. If there were, the process began again.There is little physical evidence of Michelangelo Buonarroti's residence in Carrara, but he did leave his initials in a fascinating place. In the 1st century AD, a Roman quarry slave carved an aedicula - a shrine - in bas relief on a wall overlooking the Fantiscritti quarry. It consisted of three small figures, Hercules, Jupiter, and Bacchus. It was an object of prayer by workers for protection and good fortune, and it survived for centuries. There Michelangelo carved his characteristic 'MB', and began a graffiti tradition. Eventually Bernini, Canova, Giambologna, and scores of other sculptors added their names. Ultimately it gave the quarry its name: fanti, Carrarese dialect for infanti - the three small figures - and scritti for writing.A copy of the aedicula of Fantiscritti quarry. In June 1863, the aedicula was removed from the quarry, since weather and humans had taken a toll. It was placed in the Accademia di Belle Arti, where today it is its most famous holding. The Accademia was established in 1769 and is part of the Italian university system offering degrees in painting, sculpture, restoration, etc. It also is a museum open to the public. Located in the center of town in a former Malaspina castle dating from 1187, and is worth a visit. It has a copy of Michelangelo's plaster model for the 'Dying Slave', and a collection of plaster models from Canova, who also often came to Carrara to select marble. The Sala dei Marmi (Marble Hall) has an excellent collection of sculpture by many noted artists. The Accademia also continually hosts traveling shows.City of Marble TrucksIn the industrial districts of Carrara,there are acres of stone storage yards filled with huge blocks of thecharacteristic white marble of Carrara, as well as many differentstone blocks from around the world. These yards are primarilycentered along the Via Aurelia near the autostrada and the quarriesare located high above central Carrara. Yet, as you drive arounddowntown Carrara, you will not see any trucks carrying marble blocks.The fountain to Duchess d'Este in Piazza Alberico.Seen down one of old Carrara's narrow streets.Until quite recently it was not so. Thestreets around town used to be travelled daily by hundreds ofgigantic trucks carrying marble blocks which often measured 5 by 5 by10 feet and weighed 40,000 pounds. These blocks were not strappeddown in any way, but merely rested on the truck's bed! Adisconcerting sight, but logical, since the blocks weigh much morethan the truck. The trucks were 12-wheeled behemoths called 'bisonti'(bison, for their chunky powerful shape) which all but filled smallerstreets and dwarfed passing cars. Although the trucks were restricted tocertain streets, and were driven by experts (most descended from generations of marble moving families), they were nonetheless a unique and problematiccharacteristic of Carrara traffic.Today, the marble travels on the Strada dei Marmi di Carrara, a road designated exclusively for heavy truck traffic (in business hours) opened in April, 2012. It runs south of Carrara proper between the lower quarry area at Miseglia and the Via Aurelia (SS1), 5.5 kilometers away. It took 9 years to construct since it was necessary to remove a million cubic meters of earth and rock and construct 4.5 kilometers of roadway through 8 new tunnels. The Strada cost 120 million Euro, shared between regional and town government and the marble producers. Since the road is downhill for loaded vehicles, both with blocks and marble rubble, the trucks are electronically monitored to insure the 50kmph limit is observed.Copyright 2013 All Rights Reserved. This article appeared on and has not been authorized elsewhere.More InfoAn outdoor cafe, Piazza Alberica. Carrara hosts an InternationalBiennial of Sculpture and numerous open air sculpture events. Carrara doesn't promote itself very well, so the more you read before you go, the better. In the old part of town there are descriptive plaques in Italian and English at the notable sites which are Via Santa Maria, Piazza del Duomo, Piazza delle Erbe, Via Ghibellina, Piazza Alberica, Teatro degli Animosi, Via Loris Giogi, Via del Plebiscito, Piazza Gramsci, and the Accademia di Belle Arti.* Calda-calda is a local name for the Ligurian specialty of farinata which the dour might describe as an unleavened pancake of chickpea flour. In old Carrara, go to Pizzeria Tognozzi at Via Santa Maria, 12, where they also offer calda-calda as a sandwich inside the Ligurian specialty of focaccia....and you thought you were in Tuscany! The piece of foccacia is split horizontally and stuffed with the farinata. Once we thought this was called a cinque e cinque, but we were sharply corrected: "No. That's the name in Livorno!".The market day in Carrara is Monday, and the streets are more active and there's even more to look at.Written by Martha

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